The History of the Improvement of Koi Raising Techniques and the Future prospects.

 This article by the legendary Dr. Kuroki was written many years ago and make fascinating reading 

Dr I. A. K. Kuroki is a founder of the ZNA, past chairman of this organization and held an executive position of the Z. N. A. until his death last month. This is an article written by Dr. Kuroki in 1991 and makes fascinating reading on his views of the history of koi raising techniques.


Around 1957, when I first started keeping Koi, and a matter how many I bought, they would die very quickly. For example, I can buy some in the spring and by the end of the same year they were almost all be dead. Koi with virtually consumer items with no more than a year of life in them, and keeping Koi was not very enjoyable hobby.

The main reason for this was that the dealer I relied on at the time for advice, used to raising methods suited for mud ponds, which do not apply in a concrete pond. However, and in these days it is a wonderful hobby that allows hint to have splendid biggest eating coin to look after. I can still, and an extraordinary mount of study and evidence gone into making indices away so Rory hobby. Re wall dealer hobby Arsenal flats. I think of the history of this revolution in raising techniques can be divided into three periods.


The first stage of the revolution in raising techniques are placed around about 1965, the time when Koi stopped dying of even when there were kept in a small concrete pond.

 This can about 23 important factors were discovered and put into practice.

 1). in order to keep Koi in a small concrete pond, essential oxygen had to be replenished.

The hint of this came from fish tanks, which were popular at the time, it became known that the dissolved oxygen in a concrete pond must be increased by aeration. Because of this people started to feed air into the pond through air stones, from an air pump or blower or to use jets or cascades. Fountains and waterfall's were also effective. Further to approve of this is the fact that when a lot of feed is given in the evening of warm day and many of the fish wanted next morning. It is oxygen deficiency that is the cause.

2). Koi are susceptible to external parasites such as fish sliced and anchor worm. The became possible to treaties of agricultural medicines.

When they became hosted to these external parasites. The quick tend to huddled together in a corner of the pond, and use the appetites. They lose fleshy by degrees. Fall victim to some secondary disease and die. Now became possible to treat the parasites of agricultural medicines at first tips directs an as derivatives reuse that has a strong side effect: recently Burma and is used a lot.

3). people began to carry out bottom water drainage.

With shallow kind of pond. The idea was to enjoy the sight of the water so the ponds will bought long and narrow and shallow, Freshwater was boarding in one hint and wasn't overflow the opposite end. Socialist Freshwater has a no specific gravity. It would slip along the surface of the pond and was the first to be discarded through the overflow. On top of that. Water swelled by the Koi is excreted has a high specific gravity and so sinks to the bottom. The Koi spend most of the time at the bottom of the pond Shane effective they are living in what amounted to the toilet they cannot be expected to grow healthily.

Because of this the construction of the pond was improved. So that now it was the swelled water at the bottom that is discarded. Thus the water is changed three-dimensionaly, and the Koi grow in good health.

People came to know of the above three factors, and to act on them: then the Koi no longer died or just because they were kept in a concrete pond and keeping Koi became more enjoyable. Stalled. The colours of the Koi with stalled fade compared to when the fish was bought from the dealers in the fish did not grow. Keeping Koi was still not have very enjoyable hobby.


 The second stage of the revolution occurred around 1957. It became possible to furnish the Koi said that they were even more beautiful and when they had been bought from the dealer. Not only that. It also became possible to make him grow bigger. This was the time in keeping Koi really became an enjoyable hobby. They were three factors involved here too.

1). people began to carry out water control

It became known that the quality of the water plays a very large part in improving the Koi. For example. Most natural water, especially underground water. Is not only acidic and hard. But also contained metallic. Salt fury at all hydrochloric IN is. I have a became known that for the Koi to grow well. It is better support is like alkaline with a pH between 7.2 and 7.4 and so on the soft side. It must not contain various high as. And for this reason people began to carry out water control. In other words. The began to for trade. Circulate and expose the water to the sun and air and the use all kinds of preparations for improving the quality of the water.

 2). Nutrition is colour enhancing feed was developed

 The colour the negation of the coin called clarity in in this is not produced within the body and must therefore be given in the feed. For this reason research was done into colour enhancing feed. Using all kinds of ingredients. Vegetables such as carrots, shrimps. Grey. And finally to lower. Recently a variety of seaweed called spreading which is imported from Mexico is used. Usually 10 percent is added to the feed. In addition to this. Feed of high indicative value was also researched and people came to use the excellent colour enhancing feed developed by various manufacturers.

 3). Ponds Became Bigger

 With the old kind of pond the idea was to be able to enjoy the beauty of water. So the ponds noble prolonged cancer and with the depth of only 30 cm also. Koi do not grow began a pond like this. So the ponds came to be enlarged with the depth of 1.2 to 1.5 m. Occasionally enormous ponds would be bought three or four metres deep. With a capacity has much as 100 tonnes. In a large upon a stable water temperature can be maintained more easily. And Ultra Violet raising the spoil the colours can be avoided colour as a became possible to raise the Koi have two wonderfully large size.

 EC factors meant that the Koi could be raise because brilliant colours and keeping Koi became her really enjoyable hobby colour added to this living standards became more affluent re-enter the golden age of Koi raising.


This third stage started after 1985 and should probably reach completion just as re-enter the 21st century.

In short. This will be a time when the ponds in which Koi are presently kept are arranged like streams. In a stream here are a lot of fish producing lots of excretea of the water is always clear. So long as it is not contaminated human shoots. This because of bacteria that worked process excrete. Research into the stinking bacteria is neither in hint and the bacteria was a period ending properties of started to be selected out and cultivated. The head at present time at the bacteria taking most attention is a photosynthetic Micro, we known as the meeting.

When bacteria like these are used in a pond the consume the Koi's excrete a and multiply. In this way they make the water clear. A wonderful medium in which to keep Koi. Koi tonight better than any pond. For this reason. There is no need for extra water. Only enough needs to be added to the premise that which is lost three evaporation. This means that the method of pond management has gone 280 degree change 180 degree change in a conventional pond of the Koi 60 to have to be removed as quickly as possible in order to keep the water clean. But in future will have to make a point of leaving excrete as food for the bacteria.

As the water is purified by the bacteria in this way. The water becomes clean naturally, and is no need at all to clean up pond.

In addition. The bacteria eaten by planktonic which of the neither Koi. Is planktonic quiz natural food colour that contains wonderful nutrients superior to any man-made feed and finishes the Koi of superbly. It follows that only have very small amount of man-made feed need be given. In exactly the same way in which we humans make manual for a and wastes and the use it to grow vegetables which within feet. An ecological system is created with quiz waste is used to grow planktonic which the Koi 10 feet.

They are also been advances in genetic engineering that is a ready becoming possible to produce cloned fish. If this technology can be used with Nishikigoi it will become possible to mass produced copies of the most outstanding Koi. For example. The Grand Champion The national quiz show. If this happens. It should be possible to acquire renowned Koi could lower prices. Taking altogether. It means that should the third stage of the revolution become completion. It will usher in a wonderful age. With a fantastic is possible.


1. will not cost large sums of money to acquire Koi of the very highest quality.

2. water will hardly be needed to raise Koi. In other words. Only the water lost by evaporation will need to be replaced.

3. very little space will be needed in which to keep Koi. There will be no need for huge ponds like today can it will be possible to keep Koi safely in a space no bigger than a fish tank.

4. kin keeping Koi in the daily clear and maintenance of the pond used to be a hard task but there will be no need at all to clean up pond.

Very little feed will be needed in order to keep Koi. An investor very small amount of man-made feed will be sufficient.

As you can see the future holds nothing but good things in store for us. It will not be so very long now before will be able to enjoy our hearts content as beautiful majestic Nishikigoi.

I have given this year a history of how the techniques for raising Nishikigoi have improved. I would like you all to benefit from the sound advice and guidance of those with experience. To enjoy looking after your Pet Koi.

Dr Taekio Kuroki - October 1991.